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The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine

The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine

Author: Jeremy H. Howick
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444342665
Pages: 248
Year: 2011-02-23
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become a required element of clinical practice, but it is critical for the healthcare community to understand the ongoing controversy surrounding EBM. Seeking to address questions raised by critics, The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine challenges the over dependency of EBM on randomized controlled trials. This book also explores EBM methodology and its relationship with other approaches used in medicine.
Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine

Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine

Author: Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401795797
Pages: 1224
Year: 2015-04-06
Medical practice is practiced morality, and clinical research belongs to normative ethics. The present book elucidates and advances this thesis by: 1. analyzing the structure of medical language, knowledge, and theories; 2. inquiring into the foundations of the clinical encounter; 3. introducing the logic and methodology of clinical decision-making, including artificial intelligence in medicine; 4. suggesting comprehensive theories of organism, life, and psyche; of health, illness, and disease; of etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and therapy; and 5. investigating the moral and metaphysical issues central to medical practice and research. Many systems of (classical, modal, non-classical, probability, and fuzzy) logic are introduced and applied. Fuzzy medical deontics, fuzzy medical ontology, fuzzy medical concept formation, fuzzy medical decision-making and biomedicine and many other techniques of fuzzification in medicine are introduced for the first time.
Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education

Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education

Author: Michel Alhadeff-Jones
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317541294
Pages: 226
Year: 2016-10-26
Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education argues that by rethinking the way we relate to time, we can fundamentally rethink the way we conceive education. Beyond the contemporary rhetoric of acceleration, speed, urgency or slowness, this book provides an epistemological, historical and theoretical framework that will serve as a comprehensive resource for critical reflection on the relationship between the experience of time and emancipatory education. Drawing upon time and rhythm studies, complexity theories and educational research, Alhadeff-Jones reflects upon the temporal and rhythmic dimensions of education in order to (re)theorize and address current societal and educational challenges. The book is divided into three parts. The first begins by discussing the specificities inherent to the study of time in educational sciences. The second contextualizes the evolution of temporal constraints that determine the ways education is institutionalized, organized, and experienced. The third and final part questions the meanings of emancipatory education in a context of temporal alienation. This is the first book to provide a broad overview of European and North-American theories that inform both the ideas of time and rhythm in educational sciences, from school instruction, curriculum design and arts education, to vocational training, lifelong learning and educational policies. It will be of key interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of philosophy of education, sociology of education, history of education, psychology, curriculum and learning theory, and adult education.
Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals (Large Print 16pt)

Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals (Large Print 16pt)

Author: Marc Bekoff, Jessica Pierce
Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
ISBN: 1459605543
Pages: 384
Year: 2010-10
Scientists have long counseled against interpreting animal behavior in terms of human emotions, warning that such anthropomorphizing limits our ability to understand animals as they really are. Yet what are we to make of a female gorilla in a German zoo who spent days mourning the death of her baby? Or a wild female elephant who cared for a younger one after she was injured by a rambunctious teenage male? Or a rat who refused to push a lever for food when he saw that doing so caused another rat to be shocked? Aren't these clear signs that animals have recognizable emotions and moral intelligence? With Wild Justice Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce unequivocally answer yes. Marrying years of behavioral and cognitive research with compelling and moving anecdotes, Bekoff and Pierce reveal that animals exhibit a broad repertoire of moral behaviors, including fairness, empathy, trust, and reciprocity. Underlying these behaviors is a complex and nuanced range of emotions, backed by a high degree of intelligence and surprising behavioral flexibility. Animals, in short, are incredibly adept social beings, relying on rules of conduct to navigate intricate social networks that are essential to their survival. Ultimately, Bekoff and Pierce draw the astonishing conclusion that there is no moral gap between humans and other species; morality is an evolved trait that we unquestionably share with other social mammals.
Phenomenology and the Non-Human Animal

Phenomenology and the Non-Human Animal

Author: Corinne Painter, Christian Lotz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402063075
Pages: 158
Year: 2007-07-26
The question of the relation between human and non-human animals in theoretical, ethical and political regards has become a prominent topic within the philosophical debates of the last two decades. This volume explores in substantial ways how phenomenology can contribute to these debates. It offers specific insights into the description and interpretation of the experience of the non-human animal, the relation between phenomenology and anthropology, the relation between phenomenology and psychology, as well as ethical considerations.
The Great Ape Project

The Great Ape Project

Author: Paola Cavalieri, Peter Singer
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 031211818X
Pages: 312
Year: 1993
A compelling and revolutionary work that calls for the immediate extension of our human rights to the great apes. The Great Ape Project looks forward to a new stage in the development of the community of equals, whereby the great apes-chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans-will actually receive many of the same protections and rights that are already accorded to humans. This profound collection of thirty-one essays by the world's most distinguished observers of free-living apes make up a uniquely satisfying whole, blending observation and interpretation in a highly persuasive case for a complete reassessment of the moral status of our closest kin.
From Affectivity to Subjectivity

From Affectivity to Subjectivity

Author: C. Lotz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230589588
Pages: 178
Year: 2007-11-06
Shows that Husserl's Phenomenology and its key concept, subjectivity, is based on a concrete anthropological structure, such as self-affection and the bodily experience of the other.
Good Natured

Good Natured

Author: Frans B. M. DE WAAL, F. B. M. de Waal
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674033175
Pages: 368
Year: 2009-06-30

The Mosaic Theory of Natural Complexity

The Mosaic Theory of Natural Complexity

Author: Georges Chapouthier
Publisher: Éditions des maisons des sciences de l’homme associées
ISBN: 2821895747
Pages: 67
Year: 2018-04-10
What is complexity? The present work will offer a description of complex systems based on two general principles: juxtaposition of similar units and then integration of these units, once modified, into structures at a higher level of which they become parts. As in a mosaic, however, these parts within the higher level or structure, retain some independent properties and autonomy. The model is based directly on observations of living organisms: cells or organs retain their autonomy functioning within a given organism, and individual organisms have autonomy when functioning as part of a population or society.
Self-awareness and Alterity

Self-awareness and Alterity

Author: Dan Zahavi
Publisher: Northwestern University Press
ISBN: 0810117010
Pages: 291
Year: 1999
Winner of the 2000 The Edward Goodwin Ballard Prize in Phenomenology In the rigorous and highly original Self-Awareness and Alterity, Dan Zahavi provides a sustained argument that phenomenology, especially in its Husserlian version, can contribute something decisive to the analysis of self-awareness. Taking on recent discussions within both analytical philosophy (Shoemaker, Castaneda, Nagel) and contemporary German philosophy (Henrich, Frank, Tugendhat), Zahavi argues that the phenomenological tradition has much more to offer when it comes to the problem of self-awareness than is normally assumed. As a contribution to the current philosophical debate concerning self-awareness, the book presents a comprehensive reconstruction of Husserl's theory of pre-reflective self-awareness, thereby criticizing a number of prevalent interpretations and a systematic discussion of a number of phenomenological insights related to this issue, including analyses of the temporal, intentional, reflexive, bodily, and social nature of the self.
The Human Place in the Cosmos

The Human Place in the Cosmos

Author: Max Scheler
Publisher: Northwestern University Press
ISBN: 0810164116
Pages: 79
Year: 2009
Upon Scheler’s death in 1928, Martin Heidegger remarked that he was the most important force in philosophy at the time. Jose Ortega y Gasset called Scheler "the first man of the philosophical paradise." The Human Place in the Cosmos, the last of his works Scheler completed, is a pivotal piece in the development of his writing as a whole, marking a peculiar shift in his approach and thought. He had been asked to provide an initial sketch of his much larger works on philosophical anthropology and metaphysics--works he was not able to complete because of his early demise. Frings' new translation of this key work allows us to read and understand Scheler's thought within current philosophical debates and interests. The book addresses two main questions: What is the human being? And what is the place of the human being in the universe? Scheler responds to these questions within contexts of said two projected much larger works but not without reference to scientific research. He covers various levels of being: inorganic reality, organic reality (including plant life and psychological life), all the way up to practical intelligence and the spiritual dimension of human beings, and touching upon the holy. Negotiating two intertwined levels of being, life-energy ("impulsion") and "spirit," this work marks not only a critical moment in the development of his own philosophy but also a significant contribution to the current discussions of continental and analytic philosophers on the nature of the person.
Mindreading Animals

Mindreading Animals

Author: Robert W. Lurz
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262016052
Pages: 245
Year: 2011
Animals live in a world of other minds, human and nonhuman, and their well-being andsurvival often depends on what is going on in the minds of these other creatures. But do animalsknow that other creatures have minds? And how would we know if they do? In MindreadingAnimals, Robert Lurz offers a fresh approach to the hotly debated question of mental-stateattribution in nonhuman animals. Some empirical researchers and philosophers claim that some animalsare capable of anticipating other creatures' behaviors by interpreting observable cues as signs ofunderlying mental states; others claim that animals are merely clever behavior-readers, capable ofusing such cues to anticipate others' behaviors without interpreting them as evidence of underlyingmental states. Lurz argues that neither position is compelling, and proposes a way to move thedebate, and the field, forward. Lurz presents a new approach to understanding whatmindreading in animals might be, offering a bottom-up model of mental-state attribution that isbuilt upon cognitive abilities that animals are known to possess rather than on a preconceived viewof the mind applicable to mindreading abilities in humans. Lurz goes on to describe an innovativeseries of new experimental protocols for animal mindreading research that overcome a persistentmethodological problem in the field, known as the "logical problem" or "Povinelli's challenge."These protocols show in detail how various types of animals -- from apes to monkeys to ravens todogs -- can be tested for perceptual state and belief attribution.
The Legacy of Socrates

The Legacy of Socrates

Author: James Rachels, Stuart Rachels
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023113844X
Pages: 248
Year: 2007-01
James Rachels's philosophical writings address key questions of contemporary life and the classic dilemmas of moral philosophy. A leading figure in the development of applied ethics, James Rachels became an influential and sometimes controversial thinker on issues concerning animal rights, euthanasia, bioethics, and moral objectivity. This final collection of James Rachels's work brings together fourteen essays that best summarize Rachels's philosophical positions. The essays also shed new light on the depth and breadth of Rachels's work and its importance for contemporary philosophy. Written in Rachels's characteristically lucid, literary prose, these essays address the relationship between morality and reason, the duty to relieve both human and animal suffering, the independence of morality from religion, the rejection of relativism and egoism, and the role of ethics in a democratic society. Rachels offers an argument for vegetarianism, examines a controversial case involving a surrogate mother, and speculates on the ethics of political killing. Other essays range from Rachels's interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy to his appreciation of movies. Rachels was a strong believer in the ability of moral philosophy to improve our lives. This collection, which brings these important works together for the first time, is a testament to both the value of moral philosophy in understanding our world and the richness of Rachels's contributions to this understanding.
Highland Fling

Highland Fling

Author: Nancy Mitford
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0345806964
Pages: 208
Year: 2013-09-24
In Highland Fling—Nancy Mitford’s first novel, published in 1931—a set of completely incompatible and hilariously eccentric characters collide in a Scottish castle, where bright young things play pranks on their stodgy elders until the frothy plot climaxes in ghost sightings and a dramatic fire. Inspired in part by Mitford’s youthful infatuation with a Scottish aristocrat, her story follows young Jane Dacre to a shooting party at Dulloch Castle, where she tramps around a damp and chilly moor on a hunting expedition with formidable Lady Prague, xenophobic General Murgatroyd, one-eyed Admiral Wenceslaus, and an assortment of other ancient and gouty peers of the realm, while falling in love with Albert, a surrealist painter with a mischievous sense of humor. Lighthearted and sparkling with witty banter, Highland Fling was Mitford’s first foray into the delightful fictional world for which the author of The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate later became so celebrated. With an Introduction by Julian Fellowes, creator of Downton Abbey.
Created from Animals

Created from Animals

Author: James Rachels
Publisher: OUP UK
ISBN:
Pages: 245
Year: 1990
Argues for the replacement of traditional ideas of human superiority with a more enlightened ethic regarding the value of non-human life, and discusses suicide, euthanasia, and animal rights.