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Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs

Author: Mark P. Witton
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400847656
Pages: 304
Year: 2013-06-23
For 150 million years, the skies didn't belong to birds--they belonged to the pterosaurs. These flying reptiles, which include the pterodactyls, shared the world with the nonavian dinosaurs until their extinction 65 million years ago. Some pterosaurs, such as the giant azhdarchids, were the largest flying animals of all time, with wingspans exceeding thirty feet and standing heights comparable to modern giraffes. This richly illustrated book takes an unprecedented look at these astonishing creatures, presenting the latest findings on their anatomy, ecology, and extinction. Pterosaurs features some 200 stunning illustrations, including original paintings by Mark Witton and photos of rarely seen fossils. After decades of mystery, paleontologists have finally begun to understand how pterosaurs are related to other reptiles, how they functioned as living animals, and, despite dwarfing all other flying animals, how they managed to become airborne. Here you can explore the fossil evidence of pterosaur behavior and ecology, learn about the skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of pterosaurs, and consider the newest theories about their cryptic origins. This one-of-a-kind book covers the discovery history, paleobiogeography, anatomy, and behaviors of more than 130 species of pterosaur, and also discusses their demise at the end of the Mesozoic. The most comprehensive book on pterosaurs ever published Features some 200 illustrations, including original paintings by the author Covers every known species and major group of pterosaurs Describes pterosaur anatomy, ecology, behaviors, diversity, and more Encourages further study with 500 references to primary pterosaur literature
Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs

Author: Mark P. Witton
Publisher:
ISBN: 0691150613
Pages: 291
Year: 2013
For 150 million years, the skies didn't belong to birds--they belonged to the pterosaurs. These flying reptiles, which include the pterodactyls, shared the world with the nonavian dinosaurs until their extinction 65 million years ago. Some pterosaurs, such as the giant azhdarchids, were the largest flying animals of all time, with wingspans exceeding thirty feet and standing heights comparable to modern giraffes. This richly illustrated book takes an unprecedented look at these astonishing creatures, presenting the latest findings on their anatomy, ecology, and extinction. Pterosaurs features some 200 stunning illustrations, including original paintings by Mark Witton and photos of rarely seen fossils. After decades of mystery, paleontologists have finally begun to understand how pterosaurs are related to other reptiles, how they functioned as living animals, and, despite dwarfing all other flying animals, how they managed to become airborne. Here you can explore the fossil evidence of pterosaur behavior and ecology, learn about the skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of pterosaurs, and consider the newest theories about their cryptic origins. This one-of-a-kind book covers the discovery history, paleobiogeography, anatomy, and behaviors of more than 130 species of pterosaur, and also discusses their demise at the end of the Mesozoic. The most comprehensive book on pterosaurs ever published Features some 200 illustrations, including original paintings by the author Covers every known species and major group of pterosaurs Describes pterosaur anatomy, ecology, behaviors, diversity, and more Encourages further study with 500 references to primary pterosaur literature
Recreating an Age of Reptiles

Recreating an Age of Reptiles

Author: Mark P Witton
Publisher: The Crowood Press
ISBN: 1785003356
Pages: 112
Year: 2017-06-30
Dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals have always fascinated people but they pose vast problems for the artist. How do you go about recreating the anatomy and behaviour of a creature we've never seen? How can we restore landscapes long lost to time? And where does the boundary between palaeontology - the science of understanding fossils- and artistic licence lie? In this outstanding book, Mark Witton shares his detailed paintings and great experience of drawing and painting extinct species. The approaches used in rendering these impressive creatures are discussed and demonstrate the problems, as well as the unexpected freedoms, that palaeontological artists are faced with. The book showcases over ninety scientifically credible paintings of some of the most spectacular animals in the Earth's history, as well as may less familiar species. Mark explains how each image was created with details of the artistic process, scientific grounding and collaborations between researchers and discusses the methods and goals of palaeoartistry - the recreation of extinct animals and landscapes in art. This book will be of great interest to palaeontological artists, researchers, museum curators, dinosaur enthusiasts and fossil hunters. Superbly illustrated with 90 paintings.
Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs

Author: Caroline Arnold
Publisher: StarWalk Kids Media
ISBN: 1630834122
Pages: 40
Year: 2014-06-30
One hundred million years ago, the skies were filled with enormous flying reptiles. With wings spans up to nearly forty feet, pterosaurs were the dominant life form on earth.
Living Dinosaurs

Living Dinosaurs

Author: Dr. Gareth Dyke, Dr. Gary Kaiser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119990459
Pages: 440
Year: 2011-02-15
Living Dinosaurs offers a snapshot of our current understanding of the origin and evolution of birds. After slumbering for more than a century, avian palaeontology has been awakened by startling new discoveries on almost every continent. Controversies about whether dinosaurs had real feathers or whether birds were related to dinosaurs have been swept away and replaced by new and more difficult questions: How old is the avian lineage? How did birds learn to fly? Which birds survived the great extinction that ended the Mesozoic Era and how did the avian genome evolve? Answers to these questions may help us understand how the different kinds of living birds are related to one another and how they evolved into their current niches. More importantly, they may help us understand what we need to do to help them survive the dramatic impacts of human activity on the planet.
On the Wing

On the Wing

Author: David E. Alexander
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199996792
Pages: 224
Year: 2015-09-02
Ask anybody what superpower they wished to possess and odds are the answer just might be "the ability to fly." What is it about soaring through the air held up by the power of one's own body that has captivated humans for so long? David Alexander examines the evolution of flight in the only four animals to have evolved this ability: insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. With an accessible writing style grounded in rigorous research, Alexander breaks new ground in a field that has previously been confined to specialists. While birds have received the majority of attention from flight researchers, Alexander pays equal attention to all four groups of flyers-something that no other book on the subject has done before now. In a streamlined and captivating way, David Alexander demonstrates the links between the tiny 2-mm thrip and the enormous albatross with the 12 feet wingspan used to cross oceans. The book delves into the fossil record of flyers enough to satisfy the budding paleontologist, while also pleasing ornithologists and entomologists alike with its treatment of animal behavior, flapping mechanisms, and wing-origin theory. Alexander uses relatable examples to draw in readers even without a natural interest in birds, bees, and bats. He takes something that is so off-limits and unfamiliar to humans-the act of flying-and puts it in the context of experiences that many readers can relate to. Alexander guides readers through the anomalies of the flying world: hovering hummingbirds, unexpected gliders (squirrels, for instance), and the flyers that went extinct (pterosaurs). Alexander also delves into wing-origin theory and explores whether birds entered the skies from the trees down (as gliders) or from the ground up (as runners) and uses the latest fossil evidence to present readers with an answer.
Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs

Author: David Unwin
Publisher: Dutton Adult
ISBN:
Pages: 347
Year: 2006-01-24
Here is the first complete portrait of the legendary flying dragons of deep time-the pterosaurs-designed for non-specialists, yet founded on the real science of these bizarre creatures. Presented lucidly and accessibly by one of the world's leading experts, David Unwin's book is built on a mountain of new fossil discoveries and the latest research. About 220 millions years ago, a group of reptiles took to the Earth's vast and open skies. No longer tethered to the ground, the earliest pterosaurs evolved into a multitude of diverse forms, spread around the globe, and ruled the skies until they went extinct along with the dinosaurs about 65 millions years ago, rarely leaving fossils as a record of their existence. What they did leave was a mystery for paleontologists to solve; an enigma so difficult to crack that it took centuries of false starts and missteps before the path to a true understanding of pterosaurs was uncovered. Now, an understanding of the fundamental nature of these strange creatures is finally possible. In the last 15 years, stunning new fossil finds and significant advances in technology have led to a breakthrough in our knowledge of pterosaurs. New fossils of the earliest species were discovered in Italy, a remarkably well-preserved and complete wing was found in Central Asia, and, most extraordinarily, a pterosaur embryo inside an egg was unearthed in China. CAT scanning has let researchers glimpse inside pterosaur skulls and construct three-dimensional images of their bodies from crushed bones, and modern techniques for analyzing relationships between species have revealed surprising insights into the evolution of the group. Drawing on these and other advances, DavidUnwin, caretaker of Archaeopteryx and curator at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin, paints pterosaurs and their world more vividly than has previously been possible. He eloquently reconstructs their biology and behavior. Pterosaurs weren't scaly like dinosaurs, but hairy; most were brightly colored and adorned with remarkable head crests; they were excellent fliers with physiologically sophisticated wings; they walked on all fours; and varied in size from eight inches to forty feet in wingspan. He shows how they lived their lives, raised their young, and interacted with the different environments of Mesozoic Earth. Then, building on his thorough examination of their anatomy and lifestyle, and using the powerful technique of cladistic analysis, Unwin unravels the evolutionary history of pterosaurs and establishes their place in the one great tree of life. Packed with 95 color and 30 black and white illustrations-including 10 full-page original color paintings that are scientific recreations of different pterosaur species-"The Pterosaurs From Deep Time" takes readers on an wondrous expedition back through the lost world of the Earth's deep past.
New Perspectives on Pterosaur Palaeobiology

New Perspectives on Pterosaur Palaeobiology

Author: D.W.E. Hone, M.P. Witton, D.M. Martill
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1786203170
Pages: 238
Year: 2018-01-18
Pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight, are undergoing a long-running scientific renaissance that has seen sustained, and even elevated interest, from several generations of palaeontologists. These incredible reptiles are known from every continent, flew the Mesozoic skies for at least 160 million years, diversified into more than a dozen major clades and well over 100 species, and included the largest flying animals of all time. This volume brings together leading pterosaur researchers from around the globe to discuss new and cutting-edge research into various aspects of pterosaur palaeobiology and presents diverse papers to deliver new insights on flying reptile palaeoecology, flight, ontogeny, skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy, temporal and spatial distribution and evolution, as well as revisions of their taxonomy and interrelationships.
Eggs, Nests, and Baby Dinosaurs

Eggs, Nests, and Baby Dinosaurs

Author: Kenneth Carpenter
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253334977
Pages: 336
Year: 1999
Surveys current understanding of dinosaur reproduction, including what the microscopic structure of the eggshell, the pattern of eggs in a clutch, and the ornamentation of adults reveal about eggs, development, and mating.
The Rise of Birds

The Rise of Birds

Author: Sankar Chatterjee
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 142141614X
Pages: 392
Year: 2015-03-13
A small set of fossilized bones discovered almost thirty years ago led paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee on a lifelong quest to understand their place in our understanding of the history of life. They were clearly the bones of something unusual, a bird-like creature that lived long, long ago in the age of dinosaurs. He called it Protoavis, and the animal that owned these bones quickly became a contender for the title of "oldest known bird." In 1997, Chatterjee published his findings in the first edition of The Rise of Birds. Since then Chatterjee and his colleagues have searched the world for more transitional bird fossils. And they have found them. This second edition of The Rise of Birds brings together a treasure trove of fossils that tell us far more about the evolution of birds than we once dreamed possible. With no blind allegiance to what he once thought he knew, Chatterjee devours the new evidence and lays out the most compelling version of the birth and evolution of the avian form ever attempted. He takes us from Texas to Spain, China, Mongolia, Madagascar, Australia, Antarctica, and Argentina. He shows how, in the "Cretaceous Pompeii" of China, he was able to reconstruct the origin and evolution of flight of early birds from the feathered dinosaurs that lay among thousands of other amazing fossils. Chatterjee takes us to where long-hidden bird fossils dwell. His compelling, occasionally controversial, revelations—accompanied by spectacular illustrations—are a must-read for anyone with a serious interest in the evolution of "the feathered dinosaurs," from vertebrate paleontologists and ornithologists to naturalists and birders. -- Alan Feduccia, University of North Carolina
Earth Before the Dinosaurs

Earth Before the Dinosaurs

Author: Sebastien Steyer
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253223806
Pages: 182
Year: 2012
Introduces the vertebrates that inhabited the Earth before the dinosaurs, including tetrapods that emerged from the sea and adapted to terrestrial life.
A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged Dinosaurs

A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged Dinosaurs

Author: Matthew P. Martyniuk
Publisher: Pan Aves
ISBN: 0988596504
Pages: 191
Year: 2012
A comprehensive illustrated guide to the birds of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and their dinosaurian forebears. Each species is illustrated in multiple views with size and distinguishing features highlighted. Includes introduction summarizing current research into bird origins and evolution, and what we know (and don't know) about the life appearance and habits of the first birds.
Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs

Author: Darren Naish, Paul Barrett
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
ISBN: 1588345823
Pages: 224
Year: 2016
"Discover the most successful--and bizarre--animals ever to inhabit Earth: the dinosaurs. Filled with groundbreaking discoveries in dinosaur research from around the globe, Dinosaurs is a state-of-the-art guide to dinosaur biology, anatomy, behavior, evolution, and diversity, richly illustrated with artistic reconstructions that bring these iconic creatures to life."--Page 4 of cover.
Discovering Fossil Fishes

Discovering Fossil Fishes

Author: John G. Maisey
Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)
ISBN: 0813338077
Pages: 223
Year: 2000
A natural history of the first vertebrates traces the evolution of fishes over the course of five hundred million years, describing the discovery of their fossil remains and explaining what these ancient animals reveal about the human race. Reprint.
Flying Dinosaurs

Flying Dinosaurs

Author: John Pickrell
Publisher: NewSouth
ISBN: 174224176X
Pages: 256
Year: 2014-06-01
Dinosaurs didn’t die out when an asteroid hit Earth 66 million years ago. Get ready to unthink what you thought you knew and journey into the deep, dark depths of the Jurassic. The discovery of the first feathered dinosaur in China in 1996 sent shockwaves through the palaeontological world. Were the feathers part of a complex mating ritual, or a stepping stone in the evolution of flight? And just how closely related T. rex to a chicken Award-winning journalist John Pickrell reveals how dinosaurs developed flight and became the birds in our backyards. He delves into the latest discoveries in China, the US, Europe and uncovers a thriving black market in fossils and infighting between dinosaur hunters, plus the controversial plan to use a chicken to bring dinosaurs back from the dead.