This volume contains the proceedings of ICCS 2003, the 11th International C- ferenceonConceptualStructures. Thisconferenceseriescontinuestobethemain forum for the presentation and discussion of state-of-the-art research on conc- tualstructures. Thetheories,methodologies,andtechniquespresentedherehave grown considerably in scope in recent years. On the other hand, solid bridges spanning the boundaries between such diverse ?elds as Conceptual Graphs, F- mal Concept Analysis, and others are increasingly being built in our community. The theme of this year’s conference was “Conceptual Structures for Kno- edge Creation and Communication”. In our increasingly (Inter)networked world, the potential support of information technology for the creation and commu- cation of quality knowledge is almost boundless. However, in reality, many c- ceptual barriers prevent the use of this potential. The main problem is no longer in the technological infrastructure, but in how to navigate, use, and manage the wealth of available data resources. Thus, the question is: how to create and communicate from data the information and ultimately the knowledge required by an ever more complex and dynamic society? Conceptual structures research focuses on what is behind and between the data glut and the information ov- load that need to be overcome in answering this question. In this way, our ?eld contributes important ideas on how to actually realize some of the many still ambitious visions. All regular papers were reviewed in a thorough and open process by at least two reviewers and one editor.
This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity. Einstein’s 1912 Zurich notebook is published for the first time in facsimile and transcript and commented on by today’s major historians of science. Additional sources from Einstein and others, who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development, are presented here in translation for the first time. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity.
The book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2003, held in Dresden, Germany in July 2003. The 23 revised full papers presented together with 5 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected for presentation. The papers are organized in topical sections on the many facets of conceptual structures, logical and linguistic aspects, conceptual representation of time and space, deepening the formal theory and applications of conceptual structures.
Subtle is the Lord
Author: Abraham Pais
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subtle is the Lord is widely recognized as the definitive scientific biography of Albert Einstein. The late Abraham Pais was a distinguished physicist turned historian who knew Einstein both professionally and personally in the last years of his life. His biography combines a profound understanding of Einstein's work with personal recollections from their years of acquaintance, illuminating the man through the development of his scientific thought.Pais examines the formulation of Einstein's theories of relativity, his work on Brownian motion, and his response to quantum theory with authority and precision. The profound transformation Einstein's ideas effected on the physics of the turn of the century is here laid out for the serious reader. Pais also fills many gaps in what we know of Einstein's life - his interest in philosophy, his concern with Jewish destiny, and his opinions of great figures from Newton to Freud. This remarkablevolume, written by a physicist who mingled in Einstein's scientific circle, forms a timeless and classic biography of the towering figure of twentieth-century science.
First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein’s The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein’s masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein’s insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein’s achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein’s ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity’s meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of its development, and they describe in detail the transformation of Einstein’s work from the esoteric pursuit of one individual communicating with a handful of colleagues into the preoccupation of a growing community of physicists, astronomers, mathematicians, and philosophers. This handsome edition quotes extensively from Einstein’s correspondence and reproduces historical documents such as newspaper articles and letters. Inserts are featured in the main text giving concise explanations of basic concepts, and short biographical notes and photographs of some of Einstein’s contemporaries are included. The first-ever English translations of two of Einstein’s popular Princeton lectures are featured at the book’s end.
The Principle of Relativity
Author: Albert Einstein, H. Minkowski, P. Mahalanobis
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Einstein's first paper on the restricted 'Theory of Relativity', originally published in the 'Annalen der Physik' in l905. Translated from the original German Papers by Dr. Meghnad Saha Lord Kelvin writing-in 1893, in his prefaceto the English edition of Hertz's Researches on Electric Waves, says" many workers and many thinkers have helped to build up the nineteenth century school of plenum, one ether for light, heat, electricity, magnetism; and the German and English volumes containing Hertz's electrical papers, given to the world in the last decade of the century, will be a permanent monument of the splendid consummation now realised." Ten years later, in 1905, we find Einstein declaring that " the ether will be proved to be superflous." At first sight the revolution in scientific thought brought about in the course of a single decade appears to be almost too violent. A more careful even though a rapid review of the subject will, however, show how the Theory of Relativity gradually became a historical necessity. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century, the luminiferous ether came into prominence as a result of the brilliant successes of the wave theory in the hands of Young and Fresnel. In its stationary aspect the elastic solid ether was the outcome of the search for a medium in which the lightwaves may "undulate." This stationary ether, as shown by Young, also afforded a satisfactory explanation of astronomical aberration. But its very success gave rise to a host of new questionsall bearing on the central problem of relative motion of ether and matter. On the other hand, the negativeevidences in favour of the convection-coefficient had also multiplied. Mascart, Hoek, Maxwell and others sought for definite changesin different opticaleffects induced by the motion of the earth relative to the stationaryether. But all such attempts failed to reveal the slightesttrace of any optical disturbance due to the "absolute" velocityof the earthy, thus proving conclusivelythat all tne different optical effects shared in the general compensation arising out of the Fresnelian convection of the excess ether. It must be carefullynoted that the Fresnelian convection -coefficient implicitlasysumes the existence of a fixed ether (Fresnelo)r at least a wholly stagnant medium at sufficiently distant regions (Stokes), with reference to which alone a convection velocitycan have any significance.Thus the convection coefficient implying some type of a stationary or viscous, yet nevertheless "absolute" ether, succeeded in explaining satisfactorily known optical facts down to 1880.
Author: Harvey R. Brown
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein'streatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines andextends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with therole this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity.Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory withquantum mechanics. Harvey Brown' s new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on these central topics in modern physics.
This book tracks the history of the theory of relativity through Einstein’s life, with in-depth studies of its background as built upon by ideas from earlier scientists. The focus points of Einstein’s theory of relativity include its development throughout his life; the origins of his ideas and his indebtedness to the earlier works of Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Mach and others; the application of the theory to the birth of modern cosmology; and his quest for a unified field theory. Treading a fine line between the popular and technical (but not shying away from the occasional equation), this book explains the entire range of relativity and weaves an up-to-date biography of Einstein throughout. The result is an explanation of the world of relativity, based on an extensive journey into earlier physics and a simultaneous voyage into the mind of Einstein, written for the curious and intelligent reader.
Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein’s Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein’s life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson’s authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice. In The Ultimate Quotable Einstein, readers will also find quotes by others about Einstein along with quotes attributed to him. Every quotation in this informative and entertaining collection is fully documented, and Calaprice has carefully selected new photographs and cartoons to introduce each section. Features 400 additional quotations Contains roughly 1,600 quotations in all Includes new sections on children, race and prejudice, and Einstein’s poetry Provides new commentary Beautifully illustrated The most comprehensive collection of Einstein quotes ever published
No Truth Except in the Details
Author: A.J. Kox, D.M. Siegel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Beginning with a couple of essays dealing with the experimental and mathematical foundations of physics in the work of Henry Cavendish and Joseph Fourier, the volume goes on to consider the broad areas of investigation that constituted the central foci of the development of the physics discipline in the nineteenth century: electricity and magnetism, including especially the work of Michael Faraday, William Thomson, and James Clerk Maxwell; and thermodynamics and matter theory, including the theoretical work and legacy of Josiah Willard Gibbs, some experimental work relating to thermodynamics and kinetic theory of Heinrich Hertz, and the work of Felix Seyler-Hoppe on hemoglobin in the neighboring field of biophysics/biochemistry. Moving on to the beginning of the twentieth century, a set of three articles on Albert Einstein deal with his early career and various influences on his work. Finally, a set of historiographical issues important for the history of physics are discussed, and the chronological conclusion of the volume is an article on the Solvay Conference of 1933. For physicists interested in the history of their discipline, historians and philosophers of science, and graduate students in these and related disciplines.